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Secrets of RLHF in Large Language Models Part I: PPO
paper page: https://huggingface.co/papers/2307.04964
Large language models (LLMs) have formulated a blueprint for the advancement of artificial general intelligence. Its primary objective is to function as a human-centric (helpful, honest, and harmless) assistant. Alignment with humans assumes paramount significance, and reinforcement learning with human feedback (RLHF) emerges as the pivotal technological paradigm underpinning this pursuit. Current technical routes usually include reward models to measure human preferences, Proximal Policy Optimization (PPO) to optimize policy model outputs, and process supervision to improve step-by-step reasoning capabilities. However, due to the challenges of reward design, environment interaction, and agent training, coupled with huge trial and error cost of large language models, there is a significant barrier for AI researchers to motivate the development of technical alignment and safe landing of LLMs. The stable training of RLHF has still been a puzzle. In the first report, we dissect the framework of RLHF, re-evaluate the inner workings of PPO, and explore how the parts comprising PPO algorithms impact policy agent training. We identify policy constraints being the key factor for the effective implementation of the PPO algorithm. Therefore, we explore the PPO-max, an advanced version of PPO algorithm, to efficiently improve the training stability of the policy model. Based on our main results, we perform a comprehensive analysis of RLHF abilities compared with SFT models and ChatGPT. The absence of open-source implementations has posed significant challenges to the investigation of LLMs alignment. Therefore, we are eager to release technical reports, reward models and PPO codes
Self-Supervised Learning with Lie Symmetries for Partial Differential Equations paper page: https://huggingface.co/papers/2307.05432
Machine learning for differential equations paves the way for computationally efficient alternatives to numerical solvers, with potentially broad impacts in science and engineering. Though current algorithms typically require simulated training data tailored to a given setting, one may instead wish to learn useful information from heterogeneous sources, or from real dynamical systems observations that are messy or incomplete. In this work, we learn general-purpose representations of PDEs from heterogeneous data by implementing joint embedding methods for self-supervised learning (SSL), a framework for unsupervised representation learning that has had notable success in computer vision. Our representation outperforms baseline approaches to invariant tasks, such as regressing the coefficients of a PDE, while also improving the time-stepping performance of neural solvers. We hope that our proposed methodology will prove useful in the eventual development of general-purpose foundation models for PDEs.
Generative Pretraining in Multimodality
paper page: https://huggingface.co/papers/2307.05222
present Emu, a Transformer-based multimodal foundation model, which can seamlessly generate images and texts in multimodal context. This omnivore model can take in any single-modality or multimodal data input indiscriminately (e.g., interleaved image, text and video) through a one-model-for-all autoregressive training process. First, visual signals are encoded into embeddings, and together with text tokens form an interleaved input sequence. Emu is then end-to-end trained with a unified objective of classifying the next text token or regressing the next visual embedding in the multimodal sequence. This versatile multimodality empowers the exploration of diverse pretraining data sources at scale, such as videos with interleaved frames and text, webpages with interleaved images and text, as well as web-scale image-text pairs and video-text pairs. Emu can serve as a generalist multimodal interface for both image-to-text and text-to-image tasks, and supports in-context image and text generation. Across a broad range of zero-shot/few-shot tasks including image captioning, visual question answering, video question answering and text-to-image generation, Emu demonstrates superb performance compared to state-of-the-art large multimodal models. Extended capabilities such as multimodal assistants via instruction tuning are also demonstrated with impressive performance.
Unleashing Cognitive Synergy in Large Language Models: A Task-Solving Agent through Multi-Persona Self-Collaboration
paper page: https://huggingface.co/papers/2307.05300
Human intelligence thrives on the concept of cognitive synergy, where collaboration and information integration among different cognitive processes yield superior outcomes compared to individual cognitive processes in isolation. Although Large Language Models (LLMs) have demonstrated promising performance as general task-solving agents, they still struggle with tasks that require intensive domain knowledge and complex reasoning. In this work, we propose Solo Performance Prompting (SPP), which transforms a single LLM into a cognitive synergist by engaging in multi-turn self-collaboration with multiple personas. A cognitive synergist refers to an intelligent agent that collaborates with multiple minds, combining their individual strengths and knowledge, to enhance problem-solving and overall performance in complex tasks. By dynamically identifying and simulating different personas based on task inputs, SPP unleashes the potential of cognitive synergy in LLMs. We have discovered that assigning multiple, fine-grained personas in LLMs elicits better problem-solving abilities compared to using a single or fixed number of personas. We evaluate SPP on three challenging tasks: Trivia Creative Writing, Codenames Collaborative, and Logic Grid Puzzle, encompassing both knowledge-intensive and reasoning-intensive types. Unlike previous works, such as Chain-of-Thought, that solely enhance the reasoning abilities in LLMs, SPP effectively elicits internal knowledge acquisition abilities, reduces hallucination, and maintains strong reasoning capabilities.
Collaborative Score Distillation for Consistent Visual Synthesis
paper page: https://huggingface.co/papers/2307.04787
Generative priors of large-scale text-to-image diffusion models enable a wide range of new generation and editing applications on diverse visual modalities. However, when adapting these priors to complex visual modalities, often represented as multiple images (e.g., video), achieving consistency across a set of images is challenging. In this paper, we address this challenge with a novel method, Collaborative Score Distillation (CSD). CSD is based on the Stein Variational Gradient Descent (SVGD). Specifically, we propose to consider multiple samples as "particles" in the SVGD update and combine their score functions to distill generative priors over a set of images synchronously. Thus, CSD facilitates seamless integration of information across 2D images, leading to a consistent visual synthesis across multiple samples. We show the effectiveness of CSD in a variety of tasks, encompassing the visual editing of panorama images, videos, and 3D scenes. Our results underline the competency of CSD as a versatile method for enhancing inter-sample consistency, thereby broadening the applicability of text-to-image diffusion models.
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