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Patch n' Pack: NaViT, a Vision Transformer for any Aspect Ratio and Resolution paper page: https://huggingface.co/papers/2307.06304
The ubiquitous and demonstrably suboptimal choice of resizing images to a fixed resolution before processing them with computer vision models has not yet been successfully challenged. However, models such as the Vision Transformer (ViT) offer flexible sequence-based modeling, and hence varying input sequence lengths. We take advantage of this with NaViT (Native Resolution ViT) which uses sequence packing during training to process inputs of arbitrary resolutions and aspect ratios. Alongside flexible model usage, we demonstrate improved training efficiency for large-scale supervised and contrastive image-text pretraining. NaViT can be efficiently transferred to standard tasks such as image and video classification, object detection, and semantic segmentation and leads to improved results on robustness and fairness benchmarks. At inference time, the input resolution flexibility can be used to smoothly navigate the test-time cost-performance trade-off. We believe that NaViT marks a departure from the standard, CNN-designed, input and modelling pipeline used by most computer vision models, and represents a promising direction for ViTs.
PolyLM: An Open Source Polyglot Large Language Model
paper page: https://huggingface.co/papers/2307.06018
Large language models (LLMs) demonstrate remarkable ability to comprehend, reason, and generate following nature language instructions. However, the development of LLMs has been primarily focused on high-resource languages, such as English, thereby limiting their applicability and research in other languages. Consequently, we present PolyLM, a multilingual LLM trained on 640 billion (B) tokens, avaliable in two model sizes: 1.7B and 13B. To enhance its multilingual capabilities, we 1) integrate bilingual data into training data; and 2) adopt a curriculum learning strategy that increases the proportion of non-English data from 30% in the first stage to 60% in the final stage during pre-training. Further, we propose a multilingual self-instruct method which automatically generates 132.7K diverse multilingual instructions for model fine-tuning. To assess the model's performance, we collect several existing multilingual tasks, including multilingual understanding, question answering, generation, and translation. Extensive experiments show that PolyLM surpasses other open-source models such as LLaMA and BLOOM on multilingual tasks while maintaining comparable performance in English.
VoxPoser: Composable 3D Value Maps for Robotic Manipulation with Language Models
paper page: https://huggingface.co/papers/2307.05973
Large language models (LLMs) are shown to possess a wealth of actionable knowledge that can be extracted for robot manipulation in the form of reasoning and planning. Despite the progress, most still rely on pre-defined motion primitives to carry out the physical interactions with the environment, which remains a major bottleneck. In this work, we aim to synthesize robot trajectories, i.e., a dense sequence of 6-DoF end-effector waypoints, for a large variety of manipulation tasks given an open-set of instructions and an open-set of objects. We achieve this by first observing that LLMs excel at inferring affordances and constraints given a free-form language instruction. More importantly, by leveraging their code-writing capabilities, they can interact with a visual-language model (VLM) to compose 3D value maps to ground the knowledge into the observation space of the agent. The composed value maps are then used in a model-based planning framework to zero-shot synthesize closed-loop robot trajectories with robustness to dynamic perturbations. We further demonstrate how the proposed framework can benefit from online experiences by efficiently learning a dynamics model for scenes that involve contact-rich interactions. We present a large-scale study of the proposed method in both simulated and real-robot environments, showcasing the ability to perform a large variety of everyday manipulation tasks specified in free-form natural language.
Instruction Mining: High-Quality Instruction Data Selection for Large Language Models
paper page: https://huggingface.co/papers/2307.06290
Large language models typically undergo two training stages, pretraining and finetuning. Despite that large-scale pretraining endows the model with strong capabilities to generate natural language responses, these pretrained models can still fail to understand human instructions at times. To enhance language models' ability of interpreting and responding to instructions, instruction finetuning has emerged as a critical method in this area. Recent studies found that large language models can be finetuned to perform well even with a small amount of high-quality instruction-following data. However, the selection of high-quality datasets for finetuning language models still lacks clear guidelines to follow. In this paper, we propose InstructMining, a linear rule for evaluating instruction-following data quality. We formulate InstructMining using specific natural language indicators. To investigate the relationship between data quality and these indicators, we further conduct extensive finetuning experiments. The experiment results are then applied to estimating parameters in InstructMining. To further investigate its performance, we use InstructMining to select high-quality data from unseen datasets. Results demonstrate that InstructMining can help select relatively high-quality samples from various instruction-following datasets. Compared to models finetuned on unfiltered datasets, models finetuned on InstructMining selected datasets perform better on 42.5% cases.
Stack More Layers Differently: High-Rank Training Through Low-Rank Updates paper page: https://huggingface.co/papers/2307.05695
Despite the dominance and effectiveness of scaling, resulting in large networks with hundreds of billions of parameters, the necessity to train overparametrized models remains poorly understood, and alternative approaches do not necessarily make it cheaper to train high-performance models. In this paper, we explore low-rank training techniques as an alternative approach to training large neural networks. We introduce a novel method called ReLoRA, which utilizes low-rank updates to train high-rank networks. We apply ReLoRA to pre-training transformer language models with up to 350M parameters and demonstrate comparable performance to regular neural network training. Furthermore, we observe that the efficiency of ReLoRA increases with model size, making it a promising approach for training multi-billion-parameter networks efficiently. Our findings shed light on the potential of low-rank training techniques and their implications for scaling laws.
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