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GPT4RoI: Instruction Tuning Large Language Model on Region-of-Interest paper page: https://huggingface.co/papers/2307.03601
Instruction tuning large language model (LLM) on image-text pairs has achieved unprecedented vision-language multimodal abilities. However, their vision-language alignments are only built on image-level, the lack of region-level alignment limits their advancements to fine-grained multimodal understanding. In this paper, we propose instruction tuning on region-of-interest. The key design is to reformulate the bounding box as the format of spatial instruction. The interleaved sequences of visual features extracted by the spatial instruction and the language embedding are input to LLM, and trained on the transformed region-text data in instruction tuning format. Our region-level vision-language model, termed as GPT4RoI, brings brand new conversational and interactive experience beyond image-level understanding. (1) Controllability: Users can interact with our model by both language and spatial instructions to flexibly adjust the detail level of the question. (2) Capacities: Our model supports not only single-region spatial instruction but also multi-region. This unlocks more region-level multimodal capacities such as detailed region caption and complex region reasoning. (3) Composition: Any off-the-shelf object detector can be a spatial instruction provider so as to mine informative object attributes from our model, like color, shape, material, action, relation to other objects, etc.
One Step of Gradient Descent is Provably the Optimal In-Context Learner with One Layer of Linear Self-Attention
paper page: https://huggingface.co/papers/2307.03576
Recent works have empirically analyzed in-context learning and shown that transformers trained on synthetic linear regression tasks can learn to implement ridge regression, which is the Bayes-optimal predictor, given sufficient capacity [Aky\"urek et al., 2023], while one-layer transformers with linear self-attention and no MLP layer will learn to implement one step of gradient descent (GD) on a least-squares linear regression objective [von Oswald et al., 2022]. However, the theory behind these observations remains poorly understood. We theoretically study transformers with a single layer of linear self-attention, trained on synthetic noisy linear regression data. First, we mathematically show that when the covariates are drawn from a standard Gaussian distribution, the one-layer transformer which minimizes the pre-training loss will implement a single step of GD on the least-squares linear regression objective. Then, we find that changing the distribution of the covariates and weight vector to a non-isotropic Gaussian distribution has a strong impact on the learned algorithm: the global minimizer of the pre-training loss now implements a single step of pre-conditioned GD. However, if only the distribution of the responses is changed, then this does not have a large effect on the learned algorithm: even when the response comes from a more general family of nonlinear functions, the global minimizer of the pre-training loss still implements a single step of GD on a least-squares linear regression objective.
Teaching Arithmetic to Small Transformers
paper page: https://huggingface.co/papers/2307.03381
Large language models like GPT-4 exhibit emergent capabilities across general-purpose tasks, such as basic arithmetic, when trained on extensive text data, even though these tasks are not explicitly encoded by the unsupervised, next-token prediction objective. This study investigates how small transformers, trained from random initialization, can efficiently learn arithmetic operations such as addition, multiplication, and elementary functions like square root, using the next-token prediction objective. We first demonstrate that conventional training data is not the most effective for arithmetic learning, and simple formatting changes can significantly improve accuracy. This leads to sharp phase transitions as a function of training data scale, which, in some cases, can be explained through connections to low-rank matrix completion. Building on prior work, we then train on chain-of-thought style data that includes intermediate step results. Even in the complete absence of pretraining, this approach significantly and simultaneously improves accuracy, sample complexity, and convergence speed. We also study the interplay between arithmetic and text data during training and examine the effects of few-shot prompting, pretraining, and model scale. Additionally, we discuss length generalization challenges. Our work highlights the importance of high-quality, instructive data that considers the particular characteristics of the next-word prediction objective for rapidly eliciting arithmetic capabilities.
Becoming self-instruct: introducing early stopping criteria for minimal instruct tuning
paper page: https://huggingface.co/papers/2307.03692
introduce the Instruction Following Score (IFS), a metric that detects language models' ability to follow instructions. The metric has a dual purpose. First, IFS can be used to distinguish between base and instruct models. We benchmark publicly available base and instruct models, and show that the ratio of well formatted responses to partial and full sentences can be an effective measure between those two model classes. Secondly, the metric can be used as an early stopping criteria for instruct tuning. We compute IFS for Supervised Fine-Tuning (SFT) of 7B and 13B LLaMA models, showing that models learn to follow instructions relatively early in the training process, and the further finetuning can result in changes in the underlying base model semantics. As an example of semantics change we show the objectivity of model predictions, as defined by an auxiliary metric ObjecQA. We show that in this particular case, semantic changes are the steepest when the IFS tends to plateau. We hope that decomposing instruct tuning into IFS and semantic factors starts a new trend in better controllable instruct tuning and opens possibilities for designing minimal instruct interfaces querying foundation models.
Decomposing the Generalization Gap in Imitation Learning for Visual Robotic Manipulation
paper page: https://huggingface.co/papers/2307.03659
What makes generalization hard for imitation learning in visual robotic manipulation? This question is difficult to approach at face value, but the environment from the perspective of a robot can often be decomposed into enumerable factors of variation, such as the lighting conditions or the placement of the camera. Empirically, generalization to some of these factors have presented a greater obstacle than others, but existing work sheds little light on precisely how much each factor contributes to the generalization gap. Towards an answer to this question, we study imitation learning policies in simulation and on a real robot language-conditioned manipulation task to quantify the difficulty of generalization to different (sets of) factors. We also design a new simulated benchmark of 19 tasks with 11 factors of variation to facilitate more controlled evaluations of generalization. From our study, we determine an ordering of factors based on generalization difficulty, that is consistent across simulation and our real robot setup.
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