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Google presents AudioPaLM: A Large Language Model That Can Speak and Listen
paper page: https://huggingface.co/papers/2306.12925
abstract: introduce AudioPaLM, a large language model for speech understanding and generation. AudioPaLM fuses text-based and speech-based language models, PaLM-2 [Anil et al., 2023] and AudioLM [Borsos et al., 2022], into a unified multimodal architecture that can process and generate text and speech with applications including speech recognition and speech-to-speech translation. AudioPaLM inherits the capability to preserve paralinguistic information such as speaker identity and intonation from AudioLM and the linguistic knowledge present only in text large language models such as PaLM-2. We demonstrate that initializing AudioPaLM with the weights of a text-only large language model improves speech processing, successfully leveraging the larger quantity of text training data used in pretraining to assist with the speech tasks. The resulting model significantly outperforms existing systems for speech translation tasks and has the ability to perform zero-shot speech-to-text translation for many languages for which input/target language combinations were not seen in training. AudioPaLM also demonstrates features of audio language models, such as transferring a voice across languages based on a short spoken prompt.
From Word Models to World Models: Translating from Natural Language to the Probabilistic Language of Thought
paper page: https://huggingface.co/papers/2306.12672
abstract: How does language inform our downstream thinking? In particular, how do humans make meaning from language -- and how can we leverage a theory of linguistic meaning to build machines that think in more human-like ways? In this paper, we propose rational meaning construction, a computational framework for language-informed thinking that combines neural models of language with probabilistic models for rational inference. We frame linguistic meaning as a context-sensitive mapping from natural language into a probabilistic language of thought (PLoT) -- a general-purpose symbolic substrate for probabilistic, generative world modeling. Our architecture integrates two powerful computational tools that have not previously come together: we model thinking with probabilistic programs, an expressive representation for flexible commonsense reasoning; and we model meaning construction with large language models (LLMs), which support broad-coverage translation from natural language utterances to code expressions in a probabilistic programming language. We illustrate our framework in action through examples covering four core domains from cognitive science: probabilistic reasoning, logical and relational reasoning, visual and physical reasoning, and social reasoning about agents and their plans. In each, we show that LLMs can generate context-sensitive translations that capture pragmatically-appropriate linguistic meanings, while Bayesian inference with the generated programs supports coherent and robust commonsense reasoning. We extend our framework to integrate cognitively-motivated symbolic modules to provide a unified commonsense thinking interface from language. Finally, we explore how language can drive the construction of world models themselves.
Continuous Layout Editing of Single Images with Diffusion Models
paper page: https://huggingface.co/papers/2306.13078
abstract: Recent advancements in large-scale text-to-image diffusion models have enabled many applications in image editing. However, none of these methods have been able to edit the layout of single existing images. To address this gap, we propose the first framework for layout editing of a single image while preserving its visual properties, thus allowing for continuous editing on a single image. Our approach is achieved through two key modules. First, to preserve the characteristics of multiple objects within an image, we disentangle the concepts of different objects and embed them into separate textual tokens using a novel method called masked textual inversion. Next, we propose a training-free optimization method to perform layout control for a pre-trained diffusion model, which allows us to regenerate images with learned concepts and align them with user-specified layouts. As the first framework to edit the layout of existing images, we demonstrate that our method is effective and outperforms other baselines that were modified to support this task. Our code will be freely available for public use upon acceptance.
Quantizable Transformers: Removing Outliers by Helping Attention Heads Do Nothing
paper page: https://huggingface.co/papers/2306.12929…
abstract: Transformer models have been widely adopted in various domains over the last years, and especially large language models have advanced the field of AI significantly. Due to their size, the capability of these networks has increased tremendously, but this has come at the cost of a significant increase in necessary compute. Quantization is one of the most effective ways to reduce the computational time and memory consumption of neural networks. Many studies have shown, however, that modern transformer models tend to learn strong outliers in their activations, making them difficult to quantize. To retain acceptable performance, the existence of these outliers requires activations to be in higher bitwidth or the use of different numeric formats, extra fine-tuning, or other workarounds. We show that strong outliers are related to very specific behavior of attention heads that try to learn a "no-op" or just a partial update of the residual. To achieve the exact zeros needed in the attention matrix for a no-update, the input to the softmax is pushed to be larger and larger during training, causing outliers in other parts of the network. Based on these observations, we propose two simple (independent) modifications to the attention mechanism - clipped softmax and gated attention. We empirically show that models pre-trained using our methods learn significantly smaller outliers while maintaining and sometimes even improving the floating-point task performance. This enables us to quantize transformers to full INT8 quantization of the activations without any additional effort. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our methods on both language models (BERT, OPT) and vision transformers.
Blended-NeRF: Zero-Shot Object Generation and Blending in Existing Neural Radiance Fields
paper page: https://huggingface.co/papers/2306.12760
abstract: Editing a local region or a specific object in a 3D scene represented by a NeRF is challenging, mainly due to the implicit nature of the scene representation. Consistently blending a new realistic object into the scene adds an additional level of difficulty. We present Blended-NeRF, a robust and flexible framework for editing a specific region of interest in an existing NeRF scene, based on text prompts or image patches, along with a 3D ROI box. Our method leverages a pretrained language-image model to steer the synthesis towards a user-provided text prompt or image patch, along with a 3D MLP model initialized on an existing NeRF scene to generate the object and blend it into a specified region in the original scene. We allow local editing by localizing a 3D ROI box in the input scene, and seamlessly blend the content synthesized inside the ROI with the existing scene using a novel volumetric blending technique. To obtain natural looking and view-consistent results, we leverage existing and new geometric priors and 3D augmentations for improving the visual fidelity of the final result. We test our framework both qualitatively and quantitatively on a variety of real 3D scenes and text prompts, demonstrating realistic multi-view consistent results with much flexibility and diversity compared to the baselines. Finally, we show the applicability of our framework for several 3D editing applications, including adding new objects to a scene, removing/replacing/altering existing objects, and texture conversion.
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